Cell Notes- Chapter 1, Section 2

Cell Structure and Function

(bold and italics mean plant cells only)

I. Cells

A. Cell Wall- (trash can)- rigid layer of non-living material- surrounds the cell in a plant cell

1. made of cellulose (rubbery/tough, like celery)

2. animal cells don’t have cell walls

B. Cell Membranes- (trash bag) Protects the cell

1. all cells have cell membranes

2. controls what comes in and goes out

C. Nucleus- (brain) controls and directs the cell’s activities.

1. nuclear membrane- surrounds the nucleus

a. protects the nucleus

b. allows materials to pass in/out of the nucleus

2. Chromatin- inside the nucleus

a. contains genetic material

3. Nucleolus- where ribosomes are made

II. Organelles in Cytoplasm

A. Mitochondria- “powerhouse” produces most of the cells’ energy

B. Endoplasmic Reticulation- (Complicated name! Like a maze!) Maze-like passageways.

1. carry proteins and other materials to other parts of the cell

C. Ribosomes- (MMMM! Ribs! Protein!) Produce Proteins

a. release proteins through cell wall of Endoplasmic Reticulum–proteins go to……

D. Golgi Bodies- (post office) receives, packages, and distributes proteins to other parts of the cell

E. Chloroplasts- (plants’ kitchen) where plants food is made

1. sunlight + CO2 + water—->energy (glucose)….. O is released

2. Chlorophyl in the chloroplast is pigment that makes the plant green

F. Vacuoles- Storage area of the cell

1. stores food, h2o, waste, other material

2. some animals have them, most plant cells have 1 big one

G. Lysosomes- (think lysol) clean-up crew

1. break down large food particles and old cell parts with chemicals

III. Bacterial Cells

A. Much smaller

B. No nucleus

C. Has a cell wall, cell membrane, and ribosomes….. no other organelles

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